Online Appendix: Inbound and Coupled Open Innovation Articles

This online-only appendix is published on as a supplement to Joel West and Marcel Bogers, “Leveraging External Sources of Innovation: A Review of Research on Open Innovation,” forthcoming in the Journal of Product Innovation Management, January 2, 2013, available at SSRN

The original corpus included 287 articles (Table 2) published in the Top 25 innovation journals (Table 1), plus four other highly-cited works: three books by Chesbrough and one book chapter by Chesbrough. Of these 291 works, 151 referred to the Inbound or Coupled mode of open innovation (see Table 3) and were used as the sample for the literature review. These 151 works are listed below.


Alexy, O, Criscuolo, P, Salter, A. 2009. Does IP Strategy Have to Cripple Open Innovation? Sloan Management Review 51 (1): 71-77.

Almirall, E, Casadesus-Masanell, R. 2010. Open Versus Closed Innovation: A Model Of Discovery And Divergence. Academy of Management Review 35 (1): 27-47.

Arora, A, Gambardella, A, Magazzini, L, Pammolli, F. 2009. A Breath of Fresh Air? Firm Type, Scale, Scope, and Selection Effects in Drug Development. Management Science 55 (10): 1638-1653.

Asakawa, K, Nakamura, H, Sawada, N. 2010. Firms’ open innovation policies, laboratories’ external collaborations, and laboratories’ R&D performance. R & D Management 40 (2): 109-123.

Aylen, J. 2010. Open versus closed innovation: development of the wide strip mill for steel in the United States during the 1920s. R & D Management 40 (1): 67-80.

Barge-Gil, A. 2010. Cooperation-based innovators and peripheral cooperators: An empirical analysis of their characteristics and behavior. Technovation 30 (3): 195-206.

Belderbos, R, Faems, D, Leten, B, Van Looy, B. 2010. Technological Activities and Their Impact on the Financial Performance of the Firm: Exploitation and Exploration within and between Firms. Journal of Product Innovation Management 27 (6): 869-882.

Belussi, F, Sammarra, A, Sedita, SR. 2010. Learning at the boundaries in an “Open Regional Innovation System”: A focus on firms’ innovation strategies in the Emilia Romagna life science industry. Research Policy 39 (6): 710-721.

Benassi, M, Di Minin, A. 2009. Playing in between: patent brokers in markets for technology. R & D Management 39 (1): 68-86.

Bercovitz, JEL, Feldman, MP. 2007. Fishing upstream: Firm innovation strategy and university research alliances. Research Policy 36 (7): 930-948.

Berkhout, AJ, Hartmann, D, van der Duin, P, Ortt, R. 2006. Innovating the innovation process. International Journal of Technology Management 34 (3-4): 390-404.

Bidault, F, Castello, A. 2010. Why Too Much Trust Is Death to Innovation. Sloan Management Review 51 (4): 33-38.

Birkinshaw, J, Bessant, J, Delbridge, R. 2007. Finding, forming, and performing: Creating networks for discontinuous innovation. California Management Review 49 (3): 67-84.

Blomqvist, K, Hara, V, Koivuniemi, J, Aijo, T. 2004. Towards networked R&D management: the R&D approach of Sonera Corporation as an example. R & D Management 34 (5): 591-603.

Boudreau, K. 2010. Open Platform Strategies and Innovation: Granting Access vs. Devolving Control. Management Science 56 (10): 1849-1872.

Cassiman, B, Di Guardo, MC, Valentini, G. 2010. Organizing links with science: Cooperate or contract? A project-level analysis. Research Policy 39 (7): 882-892.

Ceccagnoli, M, Graham, SJH, Higgins, MJ, Lee, J. 2010. Productivity and the role of complementary assets in firms’ demand for technology innovations. Industrial and Corporate Change 19 (3): 839-869.

Chesbrough, H. 2003. Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press

Chesbrough, H. 2003. The logic of open innovation: Managing intellectual property. California Management Review 45 (3): 35-41.

Chesbrough, H. 2003. Open Innovation: How Companies Actually Do It. Harvard Business Review 81 (7): 12-14.

Chesbrough, HW. 2003. The era of open innovation. Sloan Management Review 44 (3): 35-41.

Chesbrough, H. 2004. Managing open innovation. Research-Technology Management 47 (1): 23-26.

Chesbrough, H. 2006. Open innovation: A new paradigm for understanding industrial innovation. In Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm, ed. H. Chesbrough, W. Vanhaverbeke, and J. West, 1-12. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chesbrough, H. 2006. Open Business Models: How to Thrive in the New Innovation Landscape. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Chesbrough, HW. 2007. Why companies should have open business models. Sloan Management Review 48 (2): 22-28.

Chesbrough, HW, Appleyard, MM. 2007. Open innovation and strategy. California Management Review 50 (1): 57-76.

Chesbrough, H, Crowther, AK. 2006. Beyond high tech: early adopters of open innovation in other industries. R & D Management 36 (3): 229-236.

Chesbrough, H, Prencipe, A. 2008. Networks of innovation and modularity: a dynamic perspective. International Journal of Technology Management 42 (4): 414-425.

Chesbrough, H, Schwartz, K. 2007. Innovating business models with co-development partnerships. Research-Technology Management 50 (1): 55-59.

Chesbrough, H, Birkinshaw, J, Teubal, M. 2006. Introduction to the research policy 20th anniversary special issue of the publication of “Profiting from Innovation” by David J. Teece. Research Policy 35 (8): 1091-1099.

Chesbrough, H., Vanhaverbeke, W., West, J. (Eds.). 2006. Open Innovation: Researching a New Paradigm. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Chiang, YH, Hung, KP. 2010. Exploring open search strategies and perceived innovation performance from the perspective of inter-organizational knowledge flows. R & D Management 40 (3): 292-299.

Chiaroni, D, Chiesa, V, Frattini, F. 2010. Unravelling the process from Closed to Open Innovation: evidence from mature, asset-intensive industries. R & D Management 40 (3): 222-245.

Christensen, JF, Olesen, MH, Kjaer, JS. 2005. The industrial dynamics of Open Innovation - Evidence from the transformation of consumer electronics. Research Policy 34 (10): 1533-1549.

Chuma, H. 2006. Increasing complexity and limits of organization in the microlithography industry: implications for science-based industries. Research Policy 35 (3): 394-411.

Cooper, RG. 2008. Perspective: The Stage-Gate (R) idea-to-launch process-update, what’s new, and NexGen systems. Journal of Product Innovation Management 25 (3): 213-232.

Cooper, RG. 2009. How Companies Are Reinventing Their Idea-To-Launch Methodologies. Research-Technology Management 52 (2): 47-57.

Dahlander, L, Gann, DM. 2010. How open is innovation? Research Policy 39 (6): 699-709.

Dahlander, L, Magnusson, M. 2008. How do Firms Make Use of Open Source Communities? Long Range Planning 41 (6): 629-649.

Dahlander, L, Wallin, MW. 2006. A man on the inside: Unlocking communities as complementary assets. Research Policy 35 (8): 1243-1259.

de Faria, P, Lima, F, Santos, R. 2010. Cooperation in innovation activities: The importance of partners. Research Policy 39 (8): 1082-1092.

de Jong, JPJ, Freel, M. 2010. Absorptive capacity and the reach of collaboration in high technology small firms. Research Policy 39 (1): 47-54.

Dell’Era, C, Verganti, R. 2010. Collaborative Strategies in Design-intensive Industries: Knowledge Diversity and Innovation. Long Range Planning 43 (1): 123-141.

Di Minin, A, Frattini, F, Piccaluga, A. 2010. Fiat: Open Innovation In A Downturn (1993-2003). California Management Review 52 (3): 132-159.

Dittrich, K, Duysters, G. 2007. Networking as a means to strategy change: The case of open innovation in mobile telephony. Journal of Product Innovation Management 24 (6): 510-521.

Dittrich, K, Duysters, G, de Man, AP. 2007. Strategic repositioning by means of alliance networks: The case of IBM. Research Policy 36 (10): 1496-1511.

Dodgson, M, Gann, D, Salter, A. 2006. The role of technology in the shift towards open innovation: the case of Procter & Gamble. R & D Management 36 (3): 333-346.

Droge, C, Stanko, MA, Pollitte, WA. 2010. Lead Users and Early Adopters on the Web: The Role of New Technology Product Blogs. Journal of Product Innovation Management 27 (1): 66-82.

du Chatenier, E, Verstegen, JAAM, Biemans, HJA, Mulder, M, Omta, OSWF. 2010. Identification of competencies for professionals in open innovation teams. R & D Management 40 (3): 271-280.

Dushnitsky, G, Shaver, JM. 2009. Limitations To Interorganizational Knowledge Acquisition: The Paradox Of Corporate Venture Capital. Strategic Management Journal 30 (10): 1045-1064.

Ebner, W, Leimeister, JM, Krcmar, H. 2009. Community engineering for innovations: the ideas competition as a method to nurture a virtual community for innovations. R & D Management 39 (4): 342-356.

Emden, Z, Calantone, RJ, Droge, C. 2006. Collaborating for new product development: Selecting the partner with maximum potential to create value. Journal of Product Innovation Management 23 (4): 330-341.

Enkel, E. 2010. Attributes required for profiting from open innovation in networks. International Journal of Technology Management 52 (3-4): 344-371.

Enkel, E, Gassmann, O. 2010. Creative imitation: exploring the case of cross-industry innovation. R & D Management 40 (3): 256-270.

Enkel, E, Gassmann, O, Chesbrough, H. 2009. Open R&D and open innovation: exploring the phenomenon. R & D Management 39 (4): 311-316.

Ettlie, JE, Elsenbach, JM. 2007. The changing role of R&D gatekeepers. Research-Technology Management 50 (5): 59-66.

Fabrizio, KR. 2009. Absorptive capacity and the search for innovation. Research Policy 38 (2): 255-267.

Faems, D, de Visser, M, Andries, P, Van Looy, B. 2010. Technology Alliance Portfolios and Financial Performance: Value-Enhancing and Cost-Increasing Effects of Open Innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management 27 (6): 785-796.

Fetterhoff, TJ, Voelkel, D. 2006. Managing open innovation in biotechnology. Research-Technology Management 49 (3): 14-18.

Fichter, K. 2009. Innovation communities: the role of networks of promotors in Open Innovation. R & D Management 39 (4): 357-371.

Fleming, L, Marx, M. 2006. Managing creativity in small worlds. California Management Review 48 (4): 6-27.

Frenz, M, Ietto-Gillies, G. 2009. The impact on innovation performance of different sources of knowledge: Evidence from the UK Community Innovation Survey. Research Policy 38 (7): 1125-1135.

Füller, J, Matzler, K, Hoppe, M. 2008. Brand community members as a source of innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management 25 (6): 608-619.

Gassmann, O. 2006. Opening up the innovation process: towards an agenda. R & D Management 36 (3): 223-228.

Gassmann, O, Sandmeier, P, Wecht, CH. 2006. Extreme customer innovation in the front-end: learning from a new software paradigm. International Journal of Technology Management 33 (1): 46-66.

Gassmann, O, Enkel, E, Chesbrough, H. 2010. The future of open innovation. R & D Management 40 (3): 213-221.

Gillier, T, Piat, G, Roussel, B, Truchot, P. 2010. Managing Innovation Fields in a Cross-Industry Exploratory Partnership with C-K Design Theory. Journal of Product Innovation Management 27 (6): 883-896.

Gordon, S, Tarafdar, M, Cook, R, Maksimoski, R, Rogowitz, B. 2008. Improving the front end of innovation with information technology. Research-Technology Management 51 (3): 50-58.

Grimpe, C, Sofka, W. 2009. Search patterns and absorptive capacity: Low- and high-technology sectors in European countries. Research Policy 38 (3): 495-506.

Gronlund, J, Sjodin, DR, Frishammar, J. 2010. Open Innovation and the Stage-Gate Process: A Revised Model For New Product Development. California Management Review 52 (3): 106-131.

Harryson, SJ. 2008. Entrepreneurship through relationships - navigating from creativity to commercialisation. R & D Management 38 (3): 290-310.

Harryson, S, Kliknaite, S, Dudkowski, R. 2008. Flexibility in innovation through external learning: exploring two models for enhanced industry-university collaboration. International Journal of Technology Management 41 (1-2): 109-137.

Haussler, C. 2010. The economics of knowledge regulation: an empirical analysis of knowledge flows. R & D Management 40 (3): 300-309.

Henkel, J. 2006. Selective revealing in open innovation processes: The case of embedded Linux. Research Policy 35 (7): 953-969.

Herzog, P, Leker, J. 2010. Open and closed innovation – different innovation cultures for different strategies. International Journal of Technology Management 52 (3-4): 322-343.

Holmes, JS, Glass, JT. 2004. Internal R&D - Vital but only one piece of the innovation puzzle. Research-Technology Management 47 (5): 7-10.

Holmes, S, Smart, P. 2009. Exploring open innovation practice in firm-nonprofit engagements: a corporate social responsibility perspective. R & D Management 39 (4): 394-409.

Hughes, B, Wareham, J. 2010. Knowledge arbitrage in global pharma: a synthetic view of absorptive capacity and open innovation. R & D Management 40 (3): 324-343.

Hung, K P, Chiang, Y H. 2010. Open innovation proclivity, entrepreneurial orientation, and perceived firm performance. International Journal of Technology Management 52 (3-4): 257-274.

Igartua, JI, Garrigos, JA, Hervas-Oliver, JL. 2010. How Innovation Management Techniques Support An Open Innovation Strategy. Research-Technology Management 53 (3): 41-52.

Ili, S, Albers, A, Miller, S. 2010. Open innovation in the automotive industry. R & D Management 40 (3): 246-255.

Jacobides, MG, Billinger, S. 2006. Designing the boundaries of the firm: From “make, buy, or ally” to the dynamic benefits of vertical architecture. Organization Science 17 (2): 249-261.

Jaspers, F, Van den Ende, J. 2010. Open innovation and systems integration: how and why firms know more than they make. International Journal of Technology Management 52 (3-4): 275-294.

Jeppesen, LB, Lakhani, KR. 2010. Marginality and Problem-Solving Effectiveness in Broadcast Search. Organization Science 21 (5): 1016-1033.

Kafouros, MI, Buckley, PJ. 2008. Under what conditions do firms benefit from the research efforts of other organizations? Research Policy 37 (2): 225-239.

Keupp, MM, Gassmann, O. 2009. Determinants and archetype users of open innovation. R & D Management 39 (4): 331-341.

Kim, H, Park, Y. 2010. The effects of open innovation activity on performance of SMEs: the case of Korea. International Journal of Technology Management 52 (3-4): 236-256.

Kirschbaum, R. 2005. Open innovation in practice. Research-Technology Management 48 (4): 24-28.

Kohler, T, Matzler, K, Füller, J. 2009. Avatar-based innovation: Using virtual worlds for real-world innovation. Technovation 29 (6-7): 395-407.

Komninos, N. 2004. Regional intelligence: distributed localised information systems for innovation and development. International Journal of Technology Management 28 (3-6): 483-506.

Lau, AKW, Tang, E, Yam, RCM. 2010. Effects of Supplier and Customer Integration on Product Innovation and Performance: Empirical Evidence in Hong Kong Manufacturers. Journal of Product Innovation Management 27 (5): 761-777.

Laursen, K, Salter, A. 2006. Open for innovation: The role of openness in explaining innovation performance among UK manufacturing firms. Strategic Management Journal 27 (2): 131-150.

Laursen, K, Leone, MI, Torrisi, S. 2010. Technological exploration through licensing: new insights from the licensee’s point of view. Industrial and Corporate Change 19 (3): 871-897.

Lee, S, Park, G, Yoon, B, Park, J. 2010. Open innovation in SMEs-An intermediated network model. Research Policy 39 (2): 290-300.

Li, Y, Vanhaverbeke, W. 2009. The effects of inter-industry and country difference in supplier relationships on pioneering innovations. Technovation 29 (12): 843-858.

Lichtenthaler, U. 2008. Open innovation in practice: An analysis of strategic approaches to technology transactions. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 55 (1): 148-157.

Lichtenthaler, U. 2010. Intellectual property and open innovation: an empirical analysis. International Journal of Technology Management 52 (3-4): 372-391.

Lichtenthaler, U, Ernst, H. 2006. Attitudes to externally organising knowledge management tasks: a review, reconsideration and extension of the NIH syndrome. R & D Management 36 (4): 367-386.

Lichtenthaler, U, Ernst, H. 2009. Opening up the innovation process: the role of technology aggressiveness. R & D Management 39 (1): 38-54.

Lim, K, Chesbrough, H, Ruan, Y. 2010. Open innovation and patterns of R&D competition. International Journal of Technology Management 52 (3-4): 295-321.

Linder, JC, Jarvenpaa, S, Davenport, TH. 2003. Toward an innovation sourcing strategy. Sloan Management Review 44 (4): 43-49.

Mehlman, SK, Uribe-Saucedo, S, Taylor, RP, Slowinski, G, Carreras, E, Arena, C. 2010. Better Practices For Managing Intellectual Assets In Collaborations. Research-Technology Management 53 (1): 55-66.

Michel, S, Brown, SW, Gallan, AS. 2008. Service-logic innovations: How to innovate customers, not products. California Management Review 50 (3): 49-65.

Minshall, T, Mortara, L, Valli, R, Probert, D. 2010. Making “Asymmetric” Partnerships Work. Research-Technology Management 53 (3): 53-63.

Mortara, L, Thomson, R, Moore, C, Armara, K, Kerr, C, Phaal, R, Probert, D. 2010. Developing A Technology Intelligence Strategy At Kodak European Research: Scan & Target. Research-Technology Management 53 (4): 27-38.

Mowery, DC. 2009. Plus ca change: Industrial RD in the third industrial revolution. Industrial and Corporate Change 18 (1): 1-50.

Munsch, K. 2009. Open Model Innovation. Research-Technology Management 52 (3): 48-52.

Murovec, N, Prodan, I. 2009. Absorptive capacity, its determinants, and influence on innovation output: Cross-cultural validation of the structural model. Technovation 29 (12): 859-872.

Murray, F, O’Mahony, S. 2007. Exploring the foundations of cumulative innovation: Implications for organization science. Organization Science 18 (6): 1006-1021.

Newell, S, Goussevskaia, A, Swan, J, Bresnen, M, Obembe, A. 2008. Interdependencies in complex project ecologies: The case of biomedical innovation. Long Range Planning 41 (1): 33-54.

Neyens, I, Faems, D, Sels, L. 2010. The impact of continuous and discontinuous alliance strategies on startup innovation performance. International Journal of Technology Management 52 (3-4): 392-410.

Nielsen, JS, Boer, H, Gertsen, F. 2008. The influence of learning in collaborative improvement. International Journal of Technology Management 42 (1-2): 107-126.

Nieto, MJ, Santamaria, L. 2007. The importance of diverse collaborative networks for the novelty of product innovation. Technovation 27 (6-7): 367-377.

Piller, FT, Walcher, D. 2006. Toolkits for idea competitions: a novel method to integrate users in new product development. R & D Management 36 (3): 307-318.

Ransbotham, S, Mitra, S. 2010. Target Age and the Acquisition of Innovation in High-Technology Industries. Management Science 56 (11): 2076-2093.

Rayna, T, Striukova, L. 2010. Large-scale open innovation: open source vs. patent pools. International Journal of Technology Management 52 (3-4): 477-496.

Rohrbeck, R. 2010. Harnessing a network of experts for competitive advantage: technology scouting in the ICT industry. R & D Management 40 (2): 169-180.

Rohrbeck, R, Holzle, K, Gemunden, HG. 2009. Opening up for competitive advantage - How Deutsche Telekom creates an open innovation ecosystem. R & D Management 39 (4): 420-430.

Rothaermel, FT, Alexandre, MT. 2009. Ambidexterity in Technology Sourcing: The Moderating Role of Absorptive Capacity. Organization Science 20 (4): 759-780.

Sandmeier, P. 2009. Customer integration strategies for innovation projects: anticipation and brokering. International Journal of Technology Management 48 (1): 1-23.

Schiele, H. 2010. Early supplier integration: the dual role of purchasing in new product development. R & D Management 40 (2): 138-153.

Sieg, JH, Wallin, MW, von Krogh, G. 2010. Managerial challenges in open innovation: a study of innovation intermediation in the chemical industry. R & D Management 40 (3): 281-291.

Slowinski, G, Sagal, MW. 2010. Good Practices In Open Innovation. Research-Technology Management 53 (5): 38-45.

Slowinski, G, Zerby, KW. 2008. Protecting IP In Collaborative Research. Research-Technology Management 51 (6): 58-65.

Slowinski, G, Hummel, E, Gupta, A, Gilmont, ER. 2009. Effective Practices For Sourcing Innovation. Research-Technology Management 52 (1): 27-34.

Sofka, W, Grimpe, C. 2010. Specialized search and innovation performance - evidence across Europe. R & D Management 40 (3): 310-323.

Spaeth, S, Stuermer, M, Von Krogh, G. 2010. Enabling knowledge creation through outsiders: towards a push model of open innovation. International Journal of Technology Management 52 (3-4): 411-431.

Spithoven, A, Clarysse, B, Knockaert, M. 2010. Building absorptive capacity to organise inbound open innovation in traditional industries. Technovation 30 (2): 130-141.

Spithoven, A, Frantzen, D, Clarysse, B. 2010. Heterogeneous Firm-Level Effects of Knowledge Exchanges on Product Innovation: Differences between Dynamic and Lagging Product Innovators. Journal of Product Innovation Management 27 (3): 362-381.

Stam, W. 2009. When does community participation enhance the performance of open source software companies? Research Policy 38 (8): 1288-1299.

Stuermer, M, Spaeth, S, von Krogh, G. 2009. Extending private-collective innovation: a case study. R & D Management 39 (2): 170-191.

Tao, J, Magnotta, V. 2006. How air products and chemicals “identifies and accelerates”. Research-Technology Management 49 (5): 12-18.

Teirlinck, P, Dumont, M, Spithoven, A. 2010. Corporate decision-making in R&D outsourcing and the impact on internal R&D employment intensity. Industrial and Corporate Change 19 (6): 1741-1768.

Terwiesch, C, Xu, Y. 2008. Innovation contests, open innovation, and multiagent problem solving. Management Science 54 (9): 1529-1543.

Tether, BS, Tajar, A. 2008. Beyond industry-university links: Sourcing knowledge for innovation from consultants, private research organisations and the public science-base. Research Policy 37 (6-7): 1079-1095.

Tether, BS, Tajar, A. 2008. The organisational-cooperation mode of innovation and its prominence amongst European service firms. Research Policy 37 (4): 720-739.

Un, CA, Cuervo-Cazurra, A, Asakawa, K. 2010. R&D Collaborations and Product Innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management 27 (5): 673-689.

van de Vrande, V, Lemmens, C, Vanhaverbeke, W. 2006. Choosing governance modes for external technology sourcing. R & D Management 36 (3): 347-363.

van de Vrande, V, de Jong, JPJ, Vanhaverbeke, W, de Rochemont, M. 2009. Open innovation in SMEs: Trends, motives and management challenges. Technovation 29 (6-7): 423-437.

van de Vrande, V, Vanhaverbeke, W, Gassmann, O. 2010. Broadening the scope of open innovation: past research, current state and future directions. International Journal of Technology Management 52 (3-4): 221-235.

van den Elst, J, Tol, R, Smits, R. 2006. Innovation in practice: Philips Applied Technologies. International Journal of Technology Management 34 (3-4): 217-231.

Veugelers, M, Bury, J, Viaene, S. 2010. Linking technology intelligence to open innovation. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 77 (2): 335-343.

Waguespack, DM, Fleming, L. 2009. Scanning the Commons? Evidence on the Benefits to Startups Participating in Open Standards Development. Management Science 55 (2): 210-223.

Weck, M, Blomqvist, K. 2008. The role of inter-organizational relationships in the development of patents: A knowledge-based approach. Research Policy 37 (8): 1329-1336.

West, J, Gallagher, S. 2006. Challenges of open innovation: the paradox of firm investment in open-source software. R & D Management 36 (3): 319-331.

Whelan, E, Teigland, R, Donnellan, B, Golden, W. 2010. How Internet technologies impact information flows in R&D: reconsidering the technological gatekeeper. R & D Management 40 (4): 400-413.

Wincent, J, Anokhin, S, Boter, H. 2009. Network board continuity and effectiveness of open innovation in Swedish strategic small-firm networks. R & D Management 39 (1): 55-67.

Witzeman, S, Slowinski, G, Dirkx, R, Gollob, L, Tao, J, Ward, S, Miraglia, S. 2006. Harnessing external technology for innovation. Research-Technology Management 49 (3): 19-27.

Zeng, SX, Xie, XM, Tam, CM. 2010. Relationship between cooperation networks and innovation performance of SMEs. Technovation 30 (3): 181-194.

Zhao, XL. 2009. Technological Innovation and Acquisitions. Management Science 55 (7): 1170-1183.

Zhao, GZ, Chen, W. 2010. A Stochastic Model for Pharmaceutical R&D Project Management in a Make-or-Buy Decision Setting. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 57 (3): 488-501.